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UZBEKISTAN

 

    The Uzbek nation is one of the most ancient nations of the world with  3,000 years of statehood history. Archaeological findings on the territory of  Selengur, Kulbulak Teshiktash prove that the first human settlements on the territory of Uzbekistan appeared 1-1.2 million years ago

     Ancient Khorezm and Bactria are early states on the territory of Uzbekistan, formation of which dates back to VIII-VII centuries. BC. Monuments of Afrasiyob, Kuzalikir, Uzunkir, Yerkurgan can serve as a model of urban culture. One of the monotheistic religions - Zoroastrianism originated in the territory of Uzbekistan. Avesta - holy book of Zoroastrianism is the spiritual heritage of Uzbek people. 
  

      In the VI-IV centuries BC the territory of Central Asia was invaded by Aheminidy, and later by the Greco-Macedonians. Against foreign invaders fought such patriots as Tumaris, Chirac and Spitamenes.  In the III. BC - III century AD on the territory of Uzbekistan prospered states like Davan, Kang, Kushan and Khorezm. The most prominent is the development of culture and art during the Kushan state. 


    After that the territory of Uzbekistan was ruled states such as Hionids, Kidarits, Ephtalites and Turkic Khanate. During this period, these states, which included a huge territory, waged a wide-ranging economic and trade policies with neighboring countries.

    

Arab conquest in history of Uzbekistan

In the VIII-IX centuries arrives a new cultural branch on the territory of Uzbekistan with the Arab conquest. Along with the struggle against the invaders, the formation of the Uzbek people took place in IX-XII. During this period, the Turkic language has taken a dominant position, and began the formation of the literary language. 


The renaissance

    In the IX-XII centuries during the reign of Samanids, Karakhanids and Khorezm there have been some positive changes in terms of cultural life. In the good of the country and the people worked such great scientists as Al-Khwarizmi, al-Ahmad Fargani, Farabi, Abu Rayhan Beruni and Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Aviccenna) , al-Zamakhshari and others. Besides, Imam al-Bukhari, at-Termizi, Nazhmuddin Kubro, Bahavuddin Naqshband and others have made valuable contribution into the development of religious sciences.


Genghis Khan 

    At the beginning of the XIII century Mongols led by Genghis Khan in, smashing Khorezm, conquered the whole territory of Central Asia. Brave sons of Uzbekistan such asZhalaliddin Manguberdi, Temur Malik and others were having unceasing war, defending their compatriots from foreign invaders.


Temurids  

  In the second half of XIV century. in the political arena appears Amir Temur, who stand against the Mongols, and eventually expelled them from the territory of our country. Centralized state in the period of Amir Temur and his dynasty has made it possible to prosper in all aspects of life, especially in the economic, social and cultural life. 

   Emir Temur creating a centralized state, streamlined management of the state apparatus, strengthened the borders of the state, strengthened the army, improved socio-economic life of the population, created conditions for prosperity of crafts and trade, reformed the tax system.

        During the reign of Ulugbek, Husayn Baykara and Zahiriddin Babur flourished science, literature and art. During this period Alisher Navoi created his works in Turkic and made his indisputable contribution to the development of spiritual heritage of Uzbek people.  

    Thanks to Amir Temur Mongol conquest and invades were stopped and many nations were liberated from Mongol invasion. Besides, thanks to efforts of Emir Temur Europe was saved from Ottoman conquest . During the period of Amir Temur and his dynasty intensified trade and diplomatic relations with European countries. 

Khanates

   Sheibanids and Ashtarkhanids ruled on the territory of Uzbekistan in XVI-XVII centuries . During the period of Ashtarkhanids  the centralized state has declined. As a result in the XVIII century  khara Emirate, Khiva and Kokand Khanates are formed. 

    As a result Emirate and Khanate couldnt stand against Russian invasion and until 1991 territory of Uzbekistan was part of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. 


     Political and economic crisis began in the 80s of the twentieth century, provided an opportunity to accelerate the movement for independence in Uzbekistan. As a result on August 31, 1991 was achieved political independence. 


By Dilshod Eshmurodov