The capital of the ancient Khorezm ,the city Kunyaurgench (Old Urgench), was one of the most powerful of the medieval empires in Central Asiais. Kunya Urgench is located on the territory of Dashoguz. Beginning from 995th Gurgandzh was the capital of the Khorezm and was the second largest and important city after Bukhara. Kunya Urgench has preserved its magnificent architectural monuments such as the mausoleum of il Arslan and Khorezm shah Tekesh, dating from the XII century. Especially important monuments of Kunya Urgench related to the XIV century, are the mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum with mosaic panels on the inside of the dome, which is a masterpiece of oriental art, unparalleled in all of medieval architecture as well as a grand 60-meter minaret Kutlug Timur, the highest in Central Asia. Also here are the magnificent ancient city-fortress Devkesen, Shasenem, Zmukshir, Kenevas and many others.
Kunya Urgench had extremely advantageous geographical location being located at the crossroads of two major caravan routes: in the east, to China, and from the south to the north-west to the Volga. This factor had an impact on growth, and the town grew rapidly expanding their possession and became the real center of civilization. At the beginning of XI century Gurgandzh became so famous that has eclipsed the glory Bukhara. Several scientists and poets began arriving in the town, who glorified the city as "the capital of thousands thinker". A brilliant scientist, physician and philosopher Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and the Great Encyclopaedist Abu Rayhan Biruni worked here.
Throughout the XIII century Gurgandzh was heart of the "Islamic world", till the leader of the city did not rebelled against Genghis Khan. The Mongols completely destroyed the great city leaving nothing. That is why modern Kunya Urgench pretty much destroyed.
The city was rebuild after Genghis's attck, but the sudden change of Amu-Darya's course to the north and the town's demolition again by Timur in the 1370s forced the inhabitants to leave the city forever.
The area was later inhabited by Turkmen in 1831, but they built new town outside the old town, using it as a graveyard. A new town of Urgench was developed to the Southeast, in present-day Uzbekistan. First archeological research on the old city site was conducted by Alexander Yakubovsky in 1929.
In a word, Kyunya Urgench is a
unique place on earth. The magnitude and importance of its
monuments are undeniable. It deserves that Kyunya Urgench
architectural masterpieces are included in UNESCO World Heritage