The history of Turkmenistan is varied and eventful and often it was against their will. The country is conquered and subdued, and it was part of… and fell under the sway of foreign powers. So in the sixth century BC Turkmenistan was part of the Persian state Ahmenids, in the fourth century BC it was conquered by Alexander the Great. From the third century BC present territory of Turkmenistan was in the Parthian kingdom. In the eighth century the country came under the power of the Arabs, then in the thirteenth century was conquered by the Tatar-Mongols. In the fourteenth century, Turkmenistan became part of the state of Timurids. And finally, in the nineteenth century the country became a member of the Russian Empire. 

After the revolution and civil war in 1921, in the Turkestan ASSR the Turkmen region was formed, and in 1924 established the Turkmen SSR. October 27, 1991 the independence of the republic of Turkmenistan was proclaimed. 

The ancient caravan route passing through the territory of Turkmenistan witnessed flourishing civilizations of Parthia, Merv and Khorezm. To the west of Ashgabat pile ruins of Nisa - the capital of the powerful Parthian kingdom. There are the remains of neighborhoods, churches, palaces. During the excavation, archaeologists found a wonderful rhytons made of ivory, sculptures out of clay and stone, coins, writing on clay tablets. These findings are of global importance. To the north of the town of Bairam-Ali, lie the ruins of another ancient city - Merv rightly included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. 

    Merv (Mary) is the most significant historical and architectural monument of Turkmenistan. The oldest part of Merv (Mary) - Erk-Kala settlement was inhabited during the first millennium BC. The town reached its zenith in the twelfth century in the Seljuk state and Khorezm, as evidenced by the remains of the city of Sultan Kala. The pearl of Oriental architecture is the mausoleum of Sultan Sanjar and the Tomb of Askhabov. In the northern Turkmenistan in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya near the town of Kunya Urgench there are the ruins of ancient Urgench - the capital of Khorezm in X - XIV centuries. Here are preserved monuments such as the mausoleums Il Arslan Tyurabek Khanum and Fakhreddine Razi, grandiose 60 m high minaret Kutlug Timur, one of the highest in Central Asia. Over the tomb of Shah Tekesh, the creator of the powerful state of Khorezm, mausoleum with a great high-hipped dome was built in the twelfth century.