kyrgyzstan

 

The territory of Kyrgyzstan, as well as the whole of Central Asia, is one of the oldest centers of human civilization. Researches of archaeologists show that primitive human inhabits here since the Stone Age. Kyrgyzstan - the ethnic group, known in Central Asia in the first millennium BC.

  The first state formations on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan emerged as the second century BC, when the southern, agricultural areas of the country became part of the state Parkan. In 3.4 cc. BC ancient Kyrgyz were part of the strong tribal alliances of nomads who very seriously worried about China. That's when construction the Great Wall of China began. In the 2-1 cc. BC part of the Kyrgyz tribes went away from the power of the Huns (Hun) and moved towards the Yenisei River ("Ene-sai" in Kirgiz means "Mother River") and Baikal ("Bye Kel" in Kirgiz - "rich lake"). It is here that they formed their first government and Kyrgyz Khanate. It was the center of the consolidation of the Kyrgyz people, the formation of its culture. Here there was first written Kirghiz. Runic inscriptions are preserved on stone monuments. The destruction of the state under the blows of invaders led to the loss of writing, but not the people's memory. Valuable epic "Manas" - a genuine encyclopedia was preserved, which included the events of history, information about the society, customs and way of life.

  In the V century the transition to a sedentary lifestyle could be mentioned in lifestyle of the nomads who lived in northern Kyrgyzstan. By the tenth century the first evidence of written sources can be found about Kyrgyz tribes in the Tien Shan. Ancient rock paintings in the tract Saimaly-Tash are well-known monuments. These unique paintings show a high level of civilization of Kirgiz people at those times. The Burana Tower and Uzgen architectural complex show the high skill of architects and builders. Until 10th century Kyrgyz Khanate took control of southern Siberia, Mongolia, Baikal, the upper Irtysh River, part of Kashgar, Issyk-Kul and Talas. The heyday of the Kyrgyz state was not only a period of invasions but also trade with the Chinese, Tibetans, the peoples of Southern Siberia, Central and Middle Asia. During this period, the Kirgyz, after defeating the Uyghur Khanate, first entered the territory of Tien Shan. However, in the 10th century only Southern Siberia, Altai and South West Mongolia were under the Kyrgyz authorities. In the 11-12 centuries their possessions were reduced to the Altai and Sayan Mountains.

Meanwhile, scattered throughout the vast space of Kyrgyzstan the Kyrgyz tribes were actively involved in the events, which is rich in history of Central Asia. They managed to preserve their ethnic autonomy, and become the core attraction of other ethnic groups. The final phase of ethno genesis is related to Mongolian, Oirot (kalmatskim), Naiman and other Central Asian nations. Beginning from the XIII century the Kirghiz had to fight bloody wars for independence from the various tribes. In the second half of the XV century on the territory of Kyrgyzstan as a result of combining the Kirghiz tribes first formed an independent khanate, which included the bulk formed by the time of the Kyrgyz nation. Kyrgyzstan had a great importance on the Silk Road. Osh - the main city of southern Kyrgyzstan today for millennia because of the geographically convenient location was a transit city of Fergana branch of the Silk Road. 

 
  Osh as a convenient place for trade and exchange goods attracted merchants, artisans, pastoralists and farmers. In 1863, North Kyrgyzstan was annexed by the Russian Empire, and in 1876 - South. After the October Revolution, Kyrgyz, together with all peoples of the former Tsarist Russia were a part of the Soviet Republic. December 15, 1990 the Supreme Soviet adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Republic, and on August 31, 1991 - Declaration of Independence of Kyrgyzstan. May 5, 1993 adopted the first Constitution of the Kyrgyz, the Republic as an independent sovereign state. May 10, 1993 in Kyrgyzstan was introduced its own national currency - som.